Wednesday, August 25, 2004

Class 1 Continued

III. At the End of the French & Indian War

A. Final score: Great Britain 1, France 0

  • France loses North American colonies to England (most of Canada & the possessions between Atlantic & Mississippi).
  • France out of the picture; balance of power permanently changed in North America
  • British still do not firmly control the Ohio Country; Native Americans are ready to defend it from westward expansion.
  • Native Americans could no longer play off French & British against one another
  • GB left with heavy burden of war debt, national debt up from £75 to £133 million.

B. American Colonists & the Experience of War

  • Colonists recognize need to help secure colonies from both Native American & French threats, & provide 25,000 troops
  • Negative experience of military service under harsh British commanders
  • Negative experience of British power; colonists find they prefer their own rule.
  • Military contracts brought prosperity to the colonies during the war years.
  • Urban artisans had enjoyed full employment with high wages. Trade depression in North America after 1763

C. The Proclamation of 1763

  • Land west of the Appalachians is not to be settled; colonists are displeased.
  • After Britain’s decisive defeat of the French, the colonists are positioned to challenge their own subordinate position within the British Empire.

IV. War’s Aftermath: The End of “Salutary Neglect”

A. England was the hub of an Empire

  • The 13 colonies were an outlying part of this empire.
  • Imperial bonds: Shared culture, commerce, & the threat from French & Indians
  • Mercantilism: King & Parliament enacted series of Navigation Acts 1651-1696
  • Navigation Acts regulated trade in colonies to serve parent country’s interests first
  • Trade must be in English or colonial ships, not foreign
  • Some goods could be traded only to England or English colony; most goods could be received only from England (slaves were an exception)

B. Hardly anyone found fault with these arrangements for many years

C. The End of "Salutary Neglect” or Benign Isolation

  • 1740s: Walpole's government in Britain ignores N. America while expanding empire as far as India. Most attention paid to West Indies colonies
  • England had long exacted external duties on imports & exports only; all requests for other monies were made through colonists' elected assemblies
  • Colonists considered internal taxes their own affair.
  • After French & Indian War, huge war debt. The 13 Colonies seen as source of revenue

NEXT: The English Parliament begins to enact a series of laws & measures to get more revenue from the colonies!